International Forum of Special Education and Child Development

特殊教育與兒童發展國際論壇  (ISSN 2709-5509) 

Effects of Individualized Plyometric Training on Balanced Health-Related Fitness Among Elementary School Students With Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

Yi-Ting Lin, Yung-Ji Sher

Published November 3, 2022; pp. 16–44;  PDF download 

Students with intellectual disabilities lead to a huge gap with peers in terms of physical fitness and balance performance. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of individualized plyometric training on balance and the health-related fitness for elementary school students with moderate intellectual disabilities. The research design is the A-B-A experimental design of the single subject experimental design. Then, the three participants were recruciated for ten weeks, twice a week, for 40 minutes each time. Action content includes squat jump with the ball, jump up vertically, jump forward and stop, knee lift on one foot, ball squat, double leg butt kick, split leg squat with the ball, squat jump with the ball, scissor jump, single leg straddle and lunge squat jump. The results concluded that the individualized plyometric training has immediate and maintenance effects on the balance ability, and it also has a positive trend of improving physical fitness.

(中文摘要)  多數智能障礙學生因障礙程度不同、認知能力高低或生理條件優弱勢能力等原因,致在平衡與健康體適能與同儕有落差。本研究以個別化增強式動作訓練,探討3位國小中度智能障礙學生平衡與健康體適能。採單一受試研究法A-B-A實驗設計,每週2次,每次40分鐘,共10週。以個別化增強式動作為主要介入,共有十二組動作,有拿球蹲、垂直跳、跳停、單腳抬膝、舉球蹲、雙腳踢臀跳、雙腳跨跳、拿球跨腳蹲、拿球蹲跳、雙腳交叉跳、單腳跨跳和弓箭步蹲跳。本研究結果歸納出個別化增強式運動方案對國小中度智能障礙學生平衡具有立即成效,對健康體適能有正向改善。


Can Exercise Improve Muscle Tension and Motor Performance of Children With ASD?

Ying-Chen Huang, Yuan-Shuo Chan

Published November 3, 2022; pp. 45–55;  PDF download 

Recently Studies showed the most of children with autism spectrum disorder suffers from congenital, early onset of delayed motor development, and the early-age muscle tension disorder. It could affect subsequent posture, coordination, balance and other motor abilities. However, there are only a few studies about muscle tension and motor performance of children with ASD. Therefore, this article begins by the developmental factors that affect the muscle tension and motor ability of children with autism. And then discusses the exercise methods that can effectively improve the muscle tension and motor ability of children with autism. It could be a reference for the planning of adapted physical education courses for children with ASD.

(中文摘要) 近年研究指出自閉症兒童其患有先天性、早發性的動作發展遲緩機會相當高,幼兒早期的肌肉張力問題可能會影響後續的姿勢、協調、平衡等動作控制能力,顯示其肌肉張力問題的早期發現、評估與介入改善有其重要性。然而受限於自閉症兒童整體肌肉張力異常成因、表現上的不確定性及評估上的限制,導致相關研究實屬稀少。故本文首先介紹影響自閉症兒童肌肉張力與動作能力的發展因素,進而探討能有效提升自閉症兒童肌肉與動作能力的運動方式,並整理自閉症兒童相關運動教學調整與設計,以作為未來自閉症適應體育課程規劃參考。

Effects of Self-prompting and Recruiting Reinforcement on Pre-vocational Task Accuracy for Students on the Autism Spectrum


 Leah R. Fein, Christina A. Rouse-Billman, and Sheila R. Alber-Morgan

Published November 13, 2022; pp. 56–67;  PDF download 

This study examined the effects of a self-prompting and recruiting reinforcement intervention package on the accuracy of pre-vocational skills for three middle school students on the autism spectrum. Accuracy of pre-vocational and recruiting skills was measured by total number of steps completed correctly out of 10 for each of the three skills. A multiple probe across tasks design showed a functional relation of the intervention package on the number of task steps completed correctly for each participant. Additionally, all three participants achieved generalization of pre-vocational skills to another setting and demonstrated maintenance for up to two months.


Volume 3, 2022

Autism in the Media: Perceptions Regarding Portrayals of ASD on Television

 Teresa Cardon, Brenda Barrio, Jane Kelley, Yun-Ju Hsiao, Sreeja Atherkode

Published November 3, 2022; pp. 1–15;  PDF download 

Books, television, and film portray characters with disabilities, and these depictions can serve to educate and inform the public. Nevertheless, the portrayals may also perpetuate stereotypes and inaccuracies. A sequential mixed methods project sought to understand perceptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as they are portrayed on television. Results indicated that while watching a television show increased some awareness and understanding of ASD, the most significant contributions were from a personal relationship with someone with ASD. Interviews with autistic individuals revealed that ASD in the media is often not representative of their experiences and promotes stereotypes that could be inaccurate. Ongoing and future media projects must take into account the varied experiences people with ASD have and the importance of including autistics as advisory members for scriptwriting, production, and completion of said projects.


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