International Forum of Special Education and Child Development

特殊教育與兒童發展國際論壇  (ISSN 2709-5509) 

Targeted Response to Intervention Training with Charter School Teachers: 
Effects on Knowledge and Implementation

Katrina Hovey,  Pamela Peak,  Sarah Ferguson,  Joshua Wolf

Published February 11, 2021; pp. 12–21;  PDF download 

Enrollment in charter schools is increasing and teachers are tasked with supporting students using multi-tiered systems of support such as response to intervention (RtI). Research supports that teachers are concerned about their ability to implement RtI. Therefore, this -intervention study explored the effectiveness of targeted RtI training on charter school teachers’ knowledge and perceived confidence in implementing RtI. Although the effect size was small, the results indicate that targeted RtI training increased teacher knowledge and confidence in implementation of RtI. Results showed a statistically significant difference from pre-test survey to post-test survey in the beliefs that the RtI model is beneficial to students, that the RtI model can reduce student referrals to special education, administrator perspectives on RtI, and teacher confidence in using data to monitor student progress.

Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities RAP Their Way to Comprehend Text

Sidra Ayoub,  Laurice M. Joseph

Published August 7, 2021; pp. 22–41;  PDF download 

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a paraphrasing strategy, RAP (Read, Ask, and Put into your own words), with two added components, writing and editing on the reading comprehension performance for a sample of middle school students with learning disabilities. A multiple probe design across eight students with learning disabilities was used to determine if a functional relation existed between students’ performance on reading comprehension and the RAP + writing and editing method. All students were trained on using the RAP + writing and editing method with instructor guidance and were also given the opportunity to practice using the method independently. Findings revealed that the majority of students answered more reading comprehension questions accurately over baseline levels of performance when they used the RAP + writing and editing method with and without instructor guidance. This consisted of answering both literal and inferential types of comprehension questions. However, some students demonstrated more robust performance results than other students.

Effect of Physical Activity on Anxiety Syndrome in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Tzu-Ya Sun,   Yuan-Shuo Chan

Published August 7, 2021; pp. 42–54;  PDF download (Text in Traditional Chinese; English abstract available)

Recently studies have shown that about 40% of people with autism would have anxiety symptoms. Those anxiety symptoms will increase their behavior and adaptation problems. In addition, some studies have found that exercise could improve anxiety symptoms. We collected through academic databases (Sciencedirect, Pubmed, NCBI, Springer and Airiti Library), and comprehensively analyzed the strategies for improving anxiety in children with autism, and the impact of physical activity on anxiety symptoms. It is found that group exercise, aerobic exercise and fitness activities can reduce the anxiety of autism children. Therefore, physical activity intervention could be regarded as one of the auxiliary therapies for anxiety in children. It is recommended to design structured and interesting individual courses based on the core characteristics of children with autism when teaching, and assist the family and school together to effectively prevent anxiety symptoms.

(中摘) 研究顯示約有40%的自閉症者會併發一種或多種的焦慮症狀,而焦慮症狀又會增加其行為與適應問題;此外,研究發現運動對於情緒與焦慮有改善效果,因此本文採文獻回顧方式,透過中、英文網路資料庫(包括Sciencedirect、PUBMED、NCBI、Springer和華藝線上圖書館)蒐集,並統整分析改善自閉症兒童焦慮的策略、身體活動對焦慮症狀的影響等面向,發現團體運動、有氧運動和阻力訓練等介入後皆能降低自閉症兒童的焦慮感,因此常態性身體活動介入可視為自閉症兒童的焦慮輔助療法。在執行上建議教學時能依據自閉症兒童的核心特質設計結構化、趣味化的個別課程,並由家庭與學校一起協助,才能有效預防焦慮症狀。

Volume 2, 2021

Screening for Social Determinants of Health: Environmental Screening Questionnaire

 Jane Squires,  Diane Bricker

Published November 12, 2020; pp. 1–11;  PDF download 

The landmark Study of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES) underscores the critical importance of the timely identification of risk factors in children’s lives that may seriously impact their current and later health and wellbeing. These factors include experiencing abuse and neglect as well as living in extreme poverty. The development and use of a screening instrument that can reliably identify environmental risk and resilience factors in young children’s lives is an effective first step to eliminating or reducing the potential negative impact of such factors. The development and use of environmental screening measures that accurately identify situational factors that are known to have a deleterious effect on children’s health and welfare would make an important contribution. 
The Environmental Screening Questionnaire-Research Edition (ESQ-RE) is designed to address this important need by gathering information on factors known to adversely affect the welfare of young children. The ESQ-RE also obtains information that can assist in targeting family needs that might lead to the elimination or attenuation of ACES in children’s lives. Initial study on the ESQ-RE are promising. Preliminary evidence supports the validity of the measure. Further professionals working in the fields of human services and early childhood education report results to be helpful by: identifying family strengths and needs; making referrals for further services; and assisting in follow-up.


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